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The first model in 1870 to define the features of the ordinary bicycle.
At a bicycle factory in Conventry, England, James Starley along with William Hillman designed the Ariel, an ordinary bicycle prototype that employed ribbon wheels which produced a patent for tension spokes. The Ariel is said to have been named after a so-called "tricksy spirit" appearing in one Shakespeare's works. This bicycle, a first with its all-metal construction, was even lighter than its predecessors, and it was the world's first model to employ a center steering head which is still used today in modern-day bicycles. Thanks to its adjustable crank and a number of other epoch-making new mechanisms, the Ariel racked up record speeds of between 23 and 24 km/h.