Learn about legendary personalities who changed the world and enlightened it with their luminous minds and deeds. In the annals of history, these scientists, philosophers and conquerors still shine. Know about the people who became the role the model for the generations to come. Read how an ordinary man can change the course of history
Usman ibn Affan is one of the Companions of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the third orthodox caliph of Islam. He belonged to Banu Umayyia clan of the Quresh. His name as by the patronymic traditions was Abu Amr and belonged to a rich family. He was born in 579 in Taif. He bought a well from a Jew in Madinah and donated the same for the Muslims who were in deep trouble by absence of fresh water in Madinah. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) gave him the glad tiding of paradise upon this memorable act. He participated in all the battles of Islam. As he donated a huge amount of property whenever needed by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the way of Allah, he won the title of "Ghani" from the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). Usman was nicknamed as “Thu Al-Nurayn” (a man with two lights) because of his marriage with two daughters of the Prophet (peace be upon him). In March 628, the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) set out to Makkah to perform Hajj. The Quraish showed resistance and denied the Muslims entry into the city. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) camped outside Makkah at Hudaybiyyah and sent Usman as his envoy to the Quraish to negotiate for the entry of the Muslims into the city to perform Hajj. Quraish made Usman stay longer than he had originally planned and refused to inform the Muslims about his whereabouts. A rumour was spread that Usman had been murdered by Quraish. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) gathered his 1,400 Companions under a tree and called them pledge to avenge the rumoured death of Usman. This incident is known as the Pledge of Pleasure (Bait-e-Rizwan) or the Pledge of the Tree. However, the Quraish released Usman and sent down Suhail ibn Amr to negotiate terms of a treaty that later became known as the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. In his Caliphate period of around 12 years, Usman had the distinction of working for the expansion of Islam and he sent the first official Muslim envoy to China in 650. The caliph is best known for forming the committee which produced multiple copies of the text of the Qur’an as it exists today. The economic reforms introduced by Usman had far reaching effects. Muslims as well as non-Muslims enjoyed an economically prosperous life during his reign. Under Usman the people became economically more prosperous, and they invested their money in the construction of buildings. Many new and larger buildings were constructed throughout the empire. During the Caliphate of Usman as many as 5,000 new mosques were constructed. He enlarged, extended, and embellished the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi and the Kabah as well.