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Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

Muhammad (peace be upon him) was born in Makkah, on Monday, 12 Rabi' al-awwal (August 2, 570). His mother, Aminah, was the daughter of Wahb Ibn Abdu Manaf of the Zahrah family. His father, Abdullah, was the son of Abdul Muttalib. His genealogy has been traced to the noble house of Ishmael, the son of Prophet Abraham in about the 40th descend.
Before he was six years old his mother died, and the doubly orphaned Muhammad (peace be up on him) was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who took the tenderest care of him. But the old chief died two years afterwards. On his deathbed he confided to his son Abu Talib the charge of the little orphan.
When Muhammad (peace be up on him) was 12 years old, he accompanied his uncle Abu Talib on a mercantile journey to Syria, and they proceeded as far as Busra. The journey lasted for some months. It was at Busra that the Christian monk Bahira met Muhammad (peace be up on him). He is related to have said to Abu Talib: “Return with this boy and guard him against the hatred of the Jews, for a great career awaits your nephew.”
The fair character and the honourable bearing of the unobtrusive youth won the approbation of the citizens of Makkah, and by common consent he received the title of "Al Ameen," meaning the faithful.
When Muhammad (peace be up on him) was 25 years old, he travelled once more to Syria as a factor of a noble and rich Quraishi widow named Khadijah; and, having proved himself faithful in the commercial interests of that lady, he was soon rewarded with her hand in marriage.
There was no such accord among the Arabs as to ensure the safety of individual rights and property. Though family relations afforded some degree of protection to citizens, yet strangers were frequently exposed to persecution and oppression. In many cases they were robbed, not only of their goods, but even of their wives and daughters. At the suggestion of Muhammad (peace be upon him), an old league called the Federation of Fudul, i.e., favours was revived with the object of repressing lawlessness and defending every weak individual - whether Makkan or stranger, free or slave - against any wrong or oppression to which he might be the victim within the territories of Makkah.
In rebuilding the Sacred House of the Kabah in 605, the question arose as to who should have the honour of raising the Black Stone, the most holy relic of that House, into its proper place. Each tribe claimed that honour. The senior citizen advised the disputants to accept for their arbitrator the first man to enter from a certain gate. The proposal was agreed upon, and the first man who entered the gate was Muhammad "Al-Ameen." His advice satisfied all the contending parties. He ordered the stone to be placed on a piece of cloth and each tribe to share the honour of lifting it up by taking hold of a part of the cloth. The stone was thus deposited in its place, and the rebuilding of the House was completed without further interruption.
Polytheism was deeply rooted among the Arabs. It offered attractions, which the new faith in its purity did not possess. The Quraish had personal material interests in the old worship, and their prestige was dependent upon its maintenance.
The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) continued preaching to the Arabs in a most gentle and reasonable manner. However, Quraish spared no efforts to fight Islam and persecuted those who embraced it. He and his companions were abused, ridiculed, humiliated, accused of indulging in magic, and the weak and oppressed believers were also tortured until they disbelieved, died or swooned (as they had no clan to defend them).
In spite of all that Islam grew stronger, so Quraish decided to change strategy and agreed not to buy, sell or intermarry with Muslims or those who approved of their religion, protected them or sympathized with them. They wrote this agreement which was called “The General Boycott” on a piece of parchment and hung it inside the Kabah as a secret pact. Therefore, Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his followers were forced into confinement in the vale of Banu Hashim where they were cut off to get any assistance.
This boycott lasted three long years during which only the bond of faith kept the hearts together and gave the Muslims strength. It ended after Hisham Ibn Amr (who felt very upset about the terrible plight of the Muslims) gathered some tribes around him and agreed to break the pact. They went to Makkah to tear the parchment and to their surprise they found that the worms had already eaten it up except the words: “In Your name O God.”

The Message that Makkah and Taif rejected, found responsive hearts in Yathrib, a small oasis about 400 kilometres to the north of Makkah. Now known as Madinatun Nabi, the city of the Prophet, or Madinah Munawwara, the radiant city, it was destined to be the centre of the Divine light that was to spread to all parts of the world for all times to come.
More and more people over the course of a year - tribal leaders, men and women - in Yathrib became Muslims.
Accompanied by Abu Bakr who was overjoyed at having been chosen for the honour and blessing of being the Prophet’s companion for the journey, the Prophet (peace be upon him) left Makkah for Madinah. This was Hijrah, the emigration - a small distance in space, a mighty leap in history, an event that was to become a threshold in the shaping of the Islamic Ummah. This is why the Muslims date their calendar from Hijrah, and not from Hira or from the birth of the Prophet.
Throughout years, when the Prophet (peace be upon him) was surrounded by hostile forces and ultimately triumphed over them, he continued to purify the souls and uplift the morals of his followers and lay the foundations of a just and compassionate family, society and state in Madinah.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) performed his only Hajj in the 10th year after migration to Madinah. In the Plain of Arafat, he gave a sermon of unsurpassable beauty and lasting value: “No man has any right to lord over other men; all men are equal, whatever their origin, colour or nationality.
”The Prophet (peace be upon him) possessed a character of exquisite beauty and charm. He was merciful, kind and compassionate. He loved children and taught kindness to animals. He spoke softly, never abused anyone, and forgave even his worst enemies. He lived a very simple life. He repaired his own shoes and clothes. He lived frugally, sometimes for days no food was cooked in his household.

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