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Smallpox vaccine

 
   
 
It is difficult to discern from early writings whether people were able to distinguish smallpox from other diseases. The most reliable early account comes from Muslim physician Zakaraya Razi.
Among his numerous minor medical treatises is the famed Treatise on the Small Pox and Measles, which was translated into Latin and various modern languages.
In the 18th century, Edward Anthony Jenner, an English scientist studied his natural surroundings. Jenner is widely credited as the pioneer of smallpox vaccine. Noting the common observation that milkmaids did not generally get smallpox, Jenner theorised that the pus in the blisters which milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease similar to smallpox, but much less virulent) protected the milkmaids from smallpox.
In 1798 after carrying out further successful tests, he published his findings: An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a Disease Known by the Name of Cow Pox.
Jenner called his idea "vaccination" from the word vaccinia which is Latin for cowpox. Jenner also introduced the term virus. However, Jenner persevered and eventually, doctors found that vaccination did work and by 1800 most were using it. Deaths from smallpox plummeted and vaccination spread throughout Europe and North America

 
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